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Selasa, 07 Februari 2012

Perbedaan Analytical and Hortatory Exposition

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
ü Social function: To persuade the readers or the listeners that something in the case, to analyze or to explain.
ü Generic Structure:
1. Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position.)
2. Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence).
3. Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented).
Jenis teks ini di awali dengan
·        THESIS, yaitu pendapat kalian tentang suatu masalah. Biasanya di awali dengan kalimat I personally think, In my opinion, I believe, etc. Setelah kalian menuliskan thesis atau pendapat,
·        kalian harus menuliskan ARGUMENTS, yaitu argumen-argumen atau alasan-alasan yang disertai dengan fakta dan bukti-bukti yang relevan sehingga pendengar atau pembaca terpengaruh dengan argumen yang kalian kemukakan. Biasanya dimulai dengan Firstly, Nest, Third, The last, etc.
·        Untuk mengakhiri teks, kalian harus menuliskan REITERATION, yaitu simpulan dari thesis dan arguments yang telah kalian bicarakan sebelumnya. Kalian bisa mengungkapkannya melalui kalimat In my conclusion, To conclude, From the facts above, we can conclude that, etc.
ü Language features:
 Emotive words such as : alarmed,ü worried.
 Words that qualify statements such as: usualü probably
 Words that link arguments such as: firstlüy, however, on the other hand, therefore.
 Usually present tenseü
 Compound and complex sentencesü
ü Example
Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.

Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit.
Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. In this example of analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.
Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies
Notes on the generic structure of this example of analytical exposition

As we know that both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition are classified as argumentative essay. Both present argument to support the thesis state in the orientation. This thesis places the writer’s position on the essay. From the generic structure, what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.
Dalam mengungkapkan pendapat, kalian pasti berusaha untuk meyakinkan lawan bicara agar mau mengikuti apa yang kalian inginkan. Makanya kalian juga akan memberikan argumen-argumen yang kuat untuk mendukung opini kalian sehingga lawan bicara bisa terpengaruh dan mengiyakan pendapat kalian.
Jadi, untuk membedakan teks Analytical Exposition dengan teks lainnya adalah di lihat dari isi dan tujuannya. The social function is to persuade by presenting arguments. Tujuannya adalah untuk membujuk pendengar atau pembaca sehingga mereka mau mengikuti keinginan kalian. Teks ini berisi tentang argumen atau alasan.
Contoh:
I personally think learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning.
Firstly, “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant, shopping malls, etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory.
Secondly, songs in general also use simple conversational language, with a lot of repetition, which is just what many learners look for sample text. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Although usually simple, some songs can be quite complex syntactically, lexically and poetically, and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Furthermore, song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people, place or time reference.
In addition, songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun, and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture, religion, patriotism and yeas, even revolution.
Last but not least, there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar, practicing selective listening comprehension, translating songs, learning vocabulary, spelling and culture.
From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that learning through music and songs, learning English can be enjoyable and fun.
Coba perhatikan teks di atas. Kalian pasti sudah tau kan yang mana thesis, argument dan reiteration.
I personally think (thesis)
Firstly, Secondly, Furthermore, In addition, Last but not least (arguments)
From the elaboration above (reiteration)

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

I. Teks ini hampir sama dengan Analytical Exposition, dapat ditemukan pada berbagai macam surat maupun artikel yang bersifat membujuk, mempengaruhi misalnya surat pembaca, promosi, surat terbuka dan lain-lain.

II. Struktur susunan teks
* Thesis *
Berisi issue atau topic permasalahan yang diangkat sebagai pokok persoalan, serta posisi penulis terhadap persoalan tersebut.

* Arguments *
Serangkaian alasan yang mendukung ide penulis.

* Recommendation *
Berisi anjuran, nasihat atau apa yang seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya dilakukan menanggapi persoalan yang diangkat.
The generic structure is as follow:
Thesis; thesis is similar to tentative conclusion which needs to be proven by certain fact and argument. In the end, it can be true or false
Arguments; this is the phase which try to examine and support that the thesis stated above is true.
Recommendation; this is what should or should not be done in the hortatory text. This recommendation is differentiating from analytical exposition.

III. Language features / ciri-ciri kebahasaan
* Generic participant. Obyek, pokok persoalan bersifat umum.

* Terdapat action verb, kata kerja tindakan

* Menggunakan mental process, missal : think, feel, understand dsb.

* Simple present tense

IV.Tujuan Komunikatif
Membujuk, mempengaruhi dan menganjurkan kepada pembaca, pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya menjadi permasalahan.

To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case.

Hortatory is similar to analytical exposition but if we have to differentiate both from one to each other, we have one useful tool by making analysis on the generic structure. What makes hortatory different from analytical exposition is the last finalizing step which analytical exposition is ended by a reiteration while hortatory is finalized by certain a recommendation.


V. CONTOH TEKS.
Higher Education for Woman
In this modern era, there are still some parents who are reluctant about sending their daughter to college. Such narrow attitude shown to woman higher education is largely due to the traditional role of woman in society. A woman is expected just to be a wife and a mother most parents believe that if their daughter gets married and chooses to be a housewife, then the higher education will be a waste. However an educated woman does not only make a better wife abut also contributer better thing to the large society.
Nowadays more women are successfully combining their career and marriage. Educated women are richer both emotionally and financially. They are able to find an outlet for monotonous drudgery of their housekeeping. They bring more satisfaction and contentment to their lives.
Depriving girl of higher education is crash discrimination. Time has changed. Modern society need the talents of its people regardless of gender. Today women work alongside men. In fact, in the last few decades women have made outstanding contributions to society.
Woman should be given the freedom to be educated whether they get married or go to work after finishing their education because it is only through education that a woman will find herself useful and discover what she wants in life. A woman who work is not an insult to her husband. Conversely, her husband should feel proud of her achievement since marriage is actually an equal partnership. Therefore, parents should not think that girls should receive less education just because they will get marriage one day.
Example II

Why Should Wearing a Helmet when Motorcycling
We often hear lots of stories from road regarding people taking spill on motorcycle when they are riding without using helmet. Mostly the riders badly end up in mess.
Wearing a fitted protective helmet offers many benefits which reduces the negative aspects of riding. First and the most important is that wearing the correct helmet can save a rider's life, physical ability, family pain, and money. The recommended designs of motorcycle helmets can provide total protection. They not only protect riders from getting a worse road injured accident but also from flying bugs, such as rain, sleet, mud and other potential projectiles.
Second, wearing a helmet can gives the raiders a matter of style. Helmets give the opportunity for rider to express the image they may want to project when riding on they way. This benefit may not be important to some people, but to others, it means a lot and important. By choosing the most appropriate helmet from all of the various styles, such as beanie, shorty, German, and many others, wearing a helmet which can projecting an image is an inherent crucial part of motorcycling and help riders feel more confident when riding on the road.
However, what most important is wearing helmet when riding is a matter of using it properly. Bikers should use the helmets which are fixed to their head. It is really not good if they places simply the helmets on the head without settling them properly. The bikers should fasten the helmet correctly to their head in order to get safe and comfort.

ü How can we see the generic structure of the hortatory example above?
Thesis: the importance of wearing helmet which is stated in the first paragraph
Argumentative: Wearing helmet gives a total protection and giving a chance in imaging self which presented in the second paragraph.
Recommendation: Bikers should wear helmet properly to get the benefits.

Teks hortatory exposition berisi tentang teks yang mengemukakan alasan-alasan dengan tujuan untuk membujuk pendengar atau pembaca agar mau mengikuti apa yang dikemukakan penulis. Dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia kita tentu sudah mengenal teks persuasi, yang sama isinya dengan teks hortatory.
Teks hortatory di awali dengan Thesis, yaitu menuliskan opini penulis tentang suatu masalah. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan argumen, yaitu alasan-alasan yang mendukung pendapat penulis. Terakhir, menuliskan saran atau nasihat.
Contoh Teks hortatory dalam bentuk surat:
Dear Editor,
We are writing to complain about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during our favourite programmes. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons.
First, ads are nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be more ads than programmes.
Second, ads are bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer, soft drink, candy and chips. And they make people want things they do not really need and can not.
Finally, the people who make ads have too much say in what programmes people watch. That is because they want to put all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programmes which are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programmes may be someone’s favourite.
For those reasons, we think TV station should stop showing ads. They interrupt programmes. They are bad influences on people, and they are sometimes put a stop to people’s favourite shows. We are sick of ads, and now we mostly watch other channels.
David
Coba perhatikan teks di atas. Paragraf pertama berisi thesis, yang dilanjutkan dengan arguments (alasan) di paragraf 2, 3, dan 4. Paragraf ke 5 berisi tentang recommendation (saran). Isi dari paragraf terakhir inilah yang membedakan teks horatatory dan analytical.

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